ĝen-1, ĝenǝ-, ĝnē-, ĝnō-

ĝen-1, ĝenǝ-, ĝnē-, ĝnō-
    ĝen-1, ĝenǝ-, ĝnē-, ĝnō-
    English meaning: to bear
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “erzeugen”
    Material: thematic present O.Ind. jánati “erzeugt, gebiert”, aLat. genō, Gk. γενέσθαι (ἐγένοντο = O.Ind. ajananta), compare O.Ir. -genathar Konj. (to Indik. -gainethar “the born wird” from *gn̥-i̯e-tro), also Welsh genni “ born become”, Bret. genel “ to give birth to children “; redupl. present not thematic O.Ind. jajanti, Av. zīzǝnti (v. 1. zazǝnti), themat. Av. zīzanǝnti “ they bear “; Konj. zīzanüt̃ “ she should bear “, kaus. Aor. O.Ind. ájījanat “ gave birth to “, O.Ir. Fut. gignithir (*ĝi-ĝenü-) “ he will be born “ and with (old) zero grade the root Gk. γίγνομαι “ to come into being; of persons, to be born; of things, to be produced; of events, to take place, come to pass, come on, happen, and in past tenses to be; to come into a certain state, to become “, Lat. gignō, -ere (genui, genitum) “ produce, bring forth”; perf. O.Ind. ja-jñ-é “ I am born “, 3. sg. jajǘ na, 3. pl. jajñúr, Gk. γέγονα, *γέγαμεν, γεγαώς (Schwyzer Gk. Gr I 767, 769), O.Ir. rogēnar (*ge-gn-) “ be born “; n-present Av. zü-n-aite “ they are born ?” (*ĝn̥̄-nǘ -mi), Arm. cnanim, Aor. cnay “ is born; generate, bear “ (I 456; *gnǝ-n-), Gk. γεννάω “ of the father, to beget, engender; of the mother, to bring forth, to produce “ (*ĝn̥̄-nü-? different Meillet BAL.-SLAV. 26, 15 f.; postverbal is γέννα “birth, origin, source, beginning; an ancestor; descent, birth; offspring, a generation; a race, family”, whereof γενναῖος “ suitable to one’s birth or descent; of persons, high-born, noble by birth; so of animals, well-bred; noble in mind, high-minded, of things, good of their kind, excellent, notable, genuine, intense “); compare Schwyzer Gk. Gr I 694 Kaus.-Iter. O.Ind. janáyati “ erzeugt, gebiert “ = O.E. cennan “ produce “ (*ĝonéi̯ō); i̯opresent O.Ind. jǘ yatē “ is born “ (therefrom jüyü “ woman “), Pers. züyad (*ĝen-ǝi̯ṓ; besides ĝn̥-i̯ṓ in:) Av. zayeite ds.; with lengthened grade of 2. Basis vowel *ĝnē-i̯ō: Ir. gnīu “I make, do” (“*engender, create “); sko-present Lat. nü-scor (*gn̥̄-skṓ -r) “ is born “; to-participle and similar: O.Ind. jütá -ḥ “ born “ (jütá -m “gender, sex, kind of”), Av. züta-; Lat. nütus (cognütus, agnütus) ds., “ born m., a son “; Maybe Alb. kunat “brother-in-law”, kunata ‘sister-in-law” from Rom. cumnat “brother-in-law”, cumnatů ‘sister-in-law”; from Lat. cognütus “related, connected by blood; m. and f. as subst. a relation either on the father’s or the mother’s side. Transf., akin, similar”. pälign. cnatois “ the rump, the buttocks “ (*gn̥̄-tós; so probably also :) Gaul. Cintu-gnütus “ firstborn “ (could be in itself also = gr γνωτός), f. gnütha “daughter”; O.N. kundr ‘son”, Goth. -kunds (himina- under likewise) “ be a descendant of “, O.E. heofon-kund, with Þ O.N. üskunnr “ of divine origin “; zero grade Lat. genitus (*genǝ- or *gene-tos, as :) Gaul. geneta “daughter”, expressive Welsh geneth (*genetta) ds., O.Ir. aicned “nature” (*ad-ĝenǝ-tom or *-ĝene-tom); Lith. žé ntas ‘son-in-law” (*ĝenǝ-to-s), gentìs “kinsman, relative” (with g after gim̃ti “ be born “), O.C.S. zętь m., Ser.-Cr. zȅt ‘son-in-law, sister’s husband “ (*ĝenǝ-ti-s), with reduced e O.H.G. kind “kid, child” (*ĝén-tom), O.S. kind (*ĝentóm) ds.; with full grade the second base syllable Gk. -γνητός “ born “ (διό-, κασί-; Proto-Gk. -η-; γνήσιος “ of or belonging to the race, i. e. lawfully begotten, legitimate “), with ō-grade O.Ind. jñütí-ḥ m. “kinsman, relative” (originally f. “ kinship”), γνωτός “kinsman, relative, brother “, γνωτή “ sister “, M.Welsh gnawt “kinsman, relative”, Goth. *knōÞs (dat. knōdai) “gender, sex”, O.H.G. knōt, knuot “gender, sex” (compare also O.H.G. knuosal n. “gender, sex, stem”, O.E. cnōsl n. “ progeny, gender, sex, family “), Ltv. znuõts ‘son-in-law, brotherin- law”; from the light basis Av. -zanta-, -zǝnta- “ born “ (compare φέρτρον : bharí-tram); also O.Welsh -gint “kid, child” from gen-t-. compare an other Aryan forms : Av. fra-zaintiš “ progeny “ (against O.Ind. prá-jüti-ḥ); Av. ząϑa- n. “birth, origin” (ar. *ž́an-tha-m); ząϑra- n. “birth” (against O.Ind. jánitram “ Geburtsstätte “); zantu- “ district, administrative district “ = O.Ind. jantú-ḥ “creature”; Av. ząhyamna- participle Fut. (against O.Ind. janišyatē, Aor. ájaništa); O.Ind. jánman- n. besides jániman- n. “ birth, gender, sex, lineage “. Gk. γενετή “birth”, Lat. Genita Mana “name of a divinity”, Osc. Deívaí Genetaí “ goddess of birth “, wherefore Lat. genitülis “ of or belonging to generation or birth, causing generation or birth, fruitful, generative, genital “; Gk. γένεσις “ origin, source, beginning; an ancestor “, Lat. genetīvus “ of or belonging to generation or birth “; with reduced ǝ: Av. frazaintiš (see above), Lat. gēns (or from *gn̥tí-) “ a clan, stock, people, tribe, natIon. Transf., an offspring, descendant; a district, country “ (then probably ingēns as “ monstrous, vast, enormous “), Gmc. kindi- in Goth. kindins (*ĝenti-nos) “ provincial governor “, O.N. kind f. “entity, gender, sex, descendant “. ĝn̥̄ti- in O.Ind. jütí -ḥ “ birth, family “ = Lat. nüti-ō “birth, gender, sex”, Umbr. natine “ a birth, origin, people, nation “, O.E. (ge)cynd f. “ kind of, nature, quality, origin, source, beginning; an ancestor, descendant “ (Eng. kind); tu-stem Lat. nütū (maior- under likewise) “from birth”, therefrom nütūra “ birth; nature, natural qualities or disposition, character; an element, substance, essence, nature”; praegnüs “pregnant”, new praegnans, from *-gnütis. ĝenǝ-ter- in O.Ind. janitár- “progenitor, father”, jánitrī “ begetter, mother”, Gk. γενετήρ, - ῆρος, γενέτωρ, -ορος “progenitor, father”, γενέτειρα “mother”, Alb. dhëndër, dhândër ‘son-inlaw, bridegroom “ (*genǝ-tr-), Lat. genitor, genetrīx (: O.Ind. jánitrī) “progenitor”; Arm. cnauɫ “progenitor, father” (*genǝ-tlo-); O.Ind. jániman- (and jánman-) n. “ birth, gender, sex, lineage “, Lat. germen “germ, sprout, scion, shoot, twig, branch”, germinüre “ sprouted out “, germünus, -a (-m- from -mn-) “ brother, 1. sister (having the same father and mother)” (*ĝen-men). ĝenos- in O.Ind. jánaḥ (gen. jánasaḥ) n. “gender, sex”, Arm. cin “birth”, Gk. γένος “gender, sex”, Lat. genus “ birth, descent, origin; race, stock, family, house; hence offspring, descendants; sex; in gen., class, kind, variety, sort; in logic, genus; of action, etc., fashion, manner, way “ (generüre “ produce “). ĝon-os in O.Ind. jána-ḥ (gen. jánasaḥ) m. “gender, sex”, Av. (in compound) zana- “people, humankind “, Gk. γόνος m., γονή f. “birth, parentage, ancestry”; Maybe Alb.Gheg zana “nymph, goddess”; -ĝeno-s, -ĝno-s, -ĝeni̯os, -gnios as 2. composition part e.g. in Lat. capri-genus “ proceeding from a goat, of the goat kind “, indigena m. f. “ born in a country, native, indigenous “ (= Arm. ǝndo-cin, ǝndo-cna-c̣, “ nato in casa del proprio patrono “), alienigena m. f. “ born in a foreign land; foreign, alien; and subst., a stranger, a foreigner, an alien “; Gaul. Boduo-genus, Litu-genius; O.Ir. ingen, ogom inigena “girl”. ĝenü in Welsh adian “ progeny “ (*ati-ĝenü), anian, Bret. dial. agnen “nature” (*n̥de-ĝenü), Loth RC 36, 106; 39, 63; with Gk. -γενής, Thrac. -zenes (Διογένης = Thrac. Diuzenus, Διζένης), compare Ven. volti-χenei and volti-χnos, Illyr. PN Anduno-cnetis (gen.), Volto-gnas; Messap. oroagenas “ inhabitant of Uria “; Gk. νεο-γνός “ new-born “, Goth. niu-kla-hs “ under-age “ (dissim. from niu-kna-, with formants -ko-), also aina-kla- “ isolated, occasional, sporadic (from *-kna-) and Lat. singulus (from *sem-gno-) as well as Lat. malignus, benignus, prīvignus (‘separate, i.e. born in other matrimony, stepchild “), Celt. -gnos in people’s name, originally Patronymica, e.g. Gaul. Truticnos (= Drūtignos), latinis. Druti filius, ogom gen. Coimagni, Ir. Coim-ün; Gaul. Ategnia; Gk. ὁμόγνιος “of the same descent “; about Cypr. ἶνις “kid, child” (barely *ἐν-γνις) compare Schwyzer Gk. I 4503; *gn̥-i̯o- (wherefore the above -gnio- additional weakening) in Lat. genius “ the superior or divine nature which is innate in everything, the spiritual part, spirit; the tutelar deity or genius of a person, place; the spirit of social enjoyment, fondness for good living, taste, appetite, inclination; of the intellect, wit, talents, genius “, originally the personified fertility (at most zero grades *ĝen-i̯os), Goth. kuni (*ĝn̥-i̯o-m), O.H.G. (etc.) chunni “gender, sex”, compare Goth. sama-kunjans acc. pl. “the same gender”: Gk. ὁμό-γνιος; Lat. progenies “ progeny “, O.Ir. gein (*genen < *ĝen-n̥) “birth”, O.E. cyne- in compound “ royal “, O.N. konr ‘son, noble-born man, husband” (Gmc.*kuninga-z in O.H.G. etc. kuning “king”, i.e. “ einem edlen Geschlechte angehörig, ihm entsprossen “). ĝn̥̄- in O.Ind. jü-s “ descendant “, pra-jü “ progeny “, jǘ s-patiṣ “ paterfamilias “ (Meillet MSL. 10, 139); about Lat. ingenuus “ free-born, born of free parents; worthy of a freeman, noble, upright, frank, candid, ingenuous “, genuīnus “ innate, native, natural; genuine” s. WH. I 593 f.
    References: WP. I 576 ff., WH. I 590 ff., 597 ff., 868, Trautmann 370, Meillet Cinquantenaire 172 ff.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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